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Breast Cancer: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment

Breast Cancer: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment

Did you know that breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American women?  In 2016, it's estimated that it will make up roughly 30% of newly diagnosed cancers in women. In the United States, about 1 in 8 women will develop invasive breast cancer in her lifetime.

In 2016, roughly 250,000 women will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. In 2016 approximately 40,000 women will die of breast cancer. This makes breast cancer the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women behind lung cancer.

On the bright side, there are also more than 2.9 million breast cancer survivors in the United States. Since about 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and occur in women with no family history, it’s even more essential to know the answers to major questions related to risk, diagnosis, and treatment.

What are some of the risk factors?

  • Gender—being a woman is the #1 risk factor.
  • Age—the older we are, the more likely we are to develop a breast cancer.
  • Race—breast cancer is more common in Caucasian women, but African-Americans are more likely to die from breast cancer.
  • Family history—having one first-degree relative (mother, sister, daughter) with breast cancer approximately doubles a woman’s risk.  Have 2 first degree relatives increases her risk by 3-fold.
  • Personal history of breast cancer—a woman with cancer in one breast has a 0.2-0.6%/year risk of developing breast cancer in the other breast.
  • History of abnormal biopsy—atypical changes in the breast increase the risk of breast cancer by 3-4 fold.
  • Genetic predisposition—5-10% of breast cancers are thought to be hereditary and due to genetic mutations increasing a woman’s lifetime risk.

What are some risk factors that we can control?

  • Delaying child birth until after 30 increases your risk.
  • Breastfeeding lowers the risk.
  • Combined hormone replacement therapy long term can increase your risk.
  • Increased alcohol consumption increases your risk.  Women who consume 2-5 drinks daily compared to non-drinkers have about 1.5 times the risk.
  • Obesity increases your risk.
  • Physical activity lowers the risk.  As little as 1.25-2.5 hours per week reduces relative risk by 18%.

What can I do to help myself?

  • Know what your normal breasts feel and look like. Breast self exams are not recommended due to false positives, however it is IMPORTANT to know what your breasts feel like and look like. If you notice a change, be sure to notify your physician.
  • Yearly screening mammograms beginning at age 40.  Some of the newer guidelines recommend waiting until 45 or 50 years old, however the American College of Radiology and Society of Breast Imaging continue to recommend annual mammography beginning at age 40 to save the most lives.
  • Know your family history.  It is important to know if anyone in your family has ever had breast or ovarian cancer.  If so, it is important to know at what age they were diagnosed.  This can impact your risk of developing a breast cancer.
  • Stop smoking. Smoking has been linked to many cancers, including breast cancer.
  • Exercise.  Being physically active for at least 30 minutes per day can lower your risk of breast cancer.
  • Low fat diet with lots of fruits and vegetables.  Also, lower alcohol intake.

What happens if I am diagnosed with breast cancer?

  • Take a deep breath. Everyone reacts differently to receiving a cancer diagnosis. It is important to give yourself time to process this life-changing news. 
  • Meet with your doctor. The first doctor you typically meet with is the Breast Surgeon.  This physician should be someone you can trust and feel comfortable with.  They will be with you the entire journey and help guide your different treatments in coordination with the entire team.
  • Get the facts.   There are many different types of breast cancer.  Depending on which type you have, the treatments can vary dramatically. Each cancer is unique and we try to individualize each patient’s treatment accordingly. 
  • Educate yourself. Patients who have educated themselves about their diagnosis are prepared for the next steps.  Do not be afraid to ask your surgeon for additional resources.  There are some really great online resources that can be very helpful.
  • Develop a support system.  The next several months will be a roller-coaster ride, emotionally, mentally, and physically for some patients. Surround yourself with people who support and love you. 

Click here for more information on Ochsner's breast cancer prevention program or call (504) 290-0093 to schedule your screening today. 

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